President Andrew Jackson redefined what it meant to lead the country. Unfortunately, the first two years of his term were marred by a social scandal that turned political.
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of several Indian tribes from their traditional territories, including the Trail of Tears. Indian Removal Act[ edit ] Prior to taking office, Jackson had spent much of his career fighting the Native Americans of the Southwestand he considered Native Americans to be inferior to those who were descended from Europeans.
The bill passed the House by in a to 97 vote, with most Southern congressmen voting for the bill and most Northern congressmen voting against it. In that decision, Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the court, ruled that Georgia could not forbid whites from entering tribal lands, as it had attempted to do with two missionaries supposedly stirring up resistance among the tribespeople.
In lateVan Buren intervened on behalf of the administration to put an end to the situation, convincing Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin to pardon the missionaries.
InGeorgia held a lottery to distribute Cherokee lands to white settlers. Many other Cherokee protested the treaty, but, by a narrow margin, the United States Senate voted to ratify the treaty in May Lacking Jackson's skills at negotiation, they frequently bribed the chiefs in order to gain their submission.
The removal of the Choctaw took place in the winter of andand was wrought with misery and suffering. The Jackson administration reached a removal treaty with a small group of Seminole, but the treaty was repudiated by the tribe.
Jackson sent soldiers into Florida to remove the Seminole, marking the start of the Second Seminole War. The Second Seminole War dragged on untiland hundreds of Seminole still remained in Florida after A combination of the army and the Illinois militia drove out the Native Americans by the end of the year, bringing a close to the Black Hawk War.
He also favored a constitutional amendment that would, once the national debt was paid off, distribute surplus revenues from tariffs to the states.
Calhoun of South Carolina Calhoun was not as extreme as some within South Carolina, and he and his allies kept more radical leaders like Robert James Turnbull in check early in Jackson's presidency. As the Petticoat Affair strained relations between Jackson and Calhoun, South Carolina nullifiers became increasingly strident in their opposition to the "Tariff of Abominations.
One party led by Calhoun himself favored free trade, one party led by Henry Clay favored protectionism, and one party led by Jackson occupied a middle position.
He also threw his support behind a tariff reduction bill that he believed would defuse the nullification issue. Hayne in the Senate, while Hayne became governor of the state.
Outside of South Carolina, no Southern states endorsed nullification, but many also expressed opposition to Jackson's threat to use force. Verplanck introduced a tariff reduction bill in the House of Representatives that would restore the tariff levels of the Tariff ofand South Carolina leaders decided to delay the onset of nullification while Congress considered a new tariff bill.
Southern leaders would have preferred lower rates, but they accepted Clay's bill as the best compromise they could achieve at that point in time. He signed both the Tariff of and the Force Bill into law on March 2.
The national bank operated branches in several states, and granted these branches a large degree of autonomy. By presenting private banknotes for redemption exchange for coins to their issuers, the national bank limited the supply of paper money in the country.
McLane's plan would recharter a reformed version of the national bank in a way that would free up funds, partly through the sale of government stock in the national bank.
The funds would in turn be used to strengthen the military or pay off the nation's debt. Over the objections of Attorney General Taney, an irreconcilable opponent of the national bank, Jackson allowed McLane to publish a Treasury Report which essentially recommended rechartering the national bank.
In JanuaryBiddle submitted to Congress a renewal of the national bank's charter without any of McLane's proposed reforms. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it. His veto message, crafted primarily by Taney, Kendall, and Andrew Jackson Donelson, attacked the national bank as an agent of inequality that supported only the wealthy.“Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Freedom ()” is the second of three volumes in Robert Remini’s series on Andrew Jackson.
This volume was published in and the series was completed in The film pays lip service to the idea - it notes, for example, that before Jackson the president was seen as the leader of one branch of the United States government, and beginning with Jackson the president began to be seen as the leader of the United States - a significant change.
The presidency of Andrew Jackson began on March 4, , when Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, Jackson, the seventh United States president, took office after defeating incumbent President John Quincy Adams in the bitterly-contested presidential election.
The Two Andrew Jacksons The Two Andrew Jacksons Jacksonian democracy may have been liberating for some, but it was repressive for many others. Andrew Jackson’s time as president would mark a major historical shift for the United States.
Unfortunately, the first two years of his term were marred by a social scandal that turned political. Critics point to Jackson’s strong support for slavery. During his lifetime (), Jackson went from poverty to wealth because of his slave ownership.