Records of Kali's worship date back less than 2, years and it is widely assumed by scholars that she represents a survival of a Dravidian pre-Aryan goddess and is thought of as the great creatrix of the ancient Indian pantheon as she is well over years old. Kali is thought to be a pre-Aryan goddess, belonging to the civilization of the Indus Valley, because there is no evidence that Aryan people ever raised a female deity to the rank that she held in the Indus and currently maintains in Hinduism.
Harappa The vast mounds at Harappa stand on the left bank of the now dry course of the Ravi River in the Punjab. They were excavated between and by the Archaeological Survey of India, in by Wheeler, and in the late 20th century by an American and Pakistani team. The lower city is partly occupied by a modern village, and it has been seriously disturbed by erosion and brick robbers.
The citadel, to the west, is roughly a parallelogram on plan, measuring approximately 1, by feet by metres.
Excavation there revealed a great platform of mud brick about 20 feet 6 metres in thickness, with a massive brick wall around the perimeter. Below the defenses were discovered traces of the Early Harappan Period.
The excavations were not extensive enough to reveal the layout of the interior, but about six building periods were discovered above the platform. The most interesting remains were discovered immediately north of the citadel, close to the bed of the river: Two other discoveries at Harappa were made to the south of the citadel.
These contained different styles of burial and will be discussed below. Harappan wellAncient Harappan well, Harappa, Pakistan. As mentioned above, an Early Harappan settlement lies beneath the later remains, and the main Harappan township has a layout strikingly similar to that of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
In the lower town, excavation has revealed as many as nine building phases. The citadel mound is a parallelogram on a plan of about feet metres on the east-west axis and feet metres on the north-south. The whole site has been drastically reduced by brick robbers, but careful excavation has revealed the foundation courses of an accurately laid rhomboid central section with oblong bastions at each corner and smaller bastions on the north and south walls.
The principal access was from the south via a flight of steps. Access from the north was via a narrow postern reached by a stairway, beyond which was a further rhomboid section, having an inset gateway in the northwest corner, near the riverbank.
Traces of a brick wall around the lower town were also encountered. The central sector of the citadel contained a series of high brick platforms divided by narrow passages. The upper parts of these platforms had been seriously damaged, and their function is mysterious, but they do not appear to have been the foundation for a granary.
The northern sector contained normal domestic housing.
A cemetery was discovered a short distance to the west of the town. It may be expected that, when the excavation of this site is published, it will add greatly to knowledge of the Indus civilization. Lothal One other excavated site deserves special attention; this is Lothal, a small settlement built on low-lying ground near a tributary of the Sabarmati River on the west side of the Gulf of Khambhat.
It appears to have served as a port or trading station. Its layout is distinctive: It was surrounded by a massive brick wall, which was probably used for flood protection.
The southeastern quadrant takes the form of a great platform of brick with earth filling, rising to a height of about 13 feet 4 metres. On this were built a series of further smaller platforms with intersecting air channels, reminiscent of the granary at Mohenjo-daro, with overall dimensions of about by feet 48 by 42 metres.
Behind this block were other buildings including a row of 12 bathrooms with connected drains, also strongly reminiscent of those found on the citadel at Mohenjo-daro.
The remaining enclosed area was evidently taken up by houses and shops. The main street ran from north to south. The most unexpected discovery at Lothal, however, was a great brick basin measuring some by feet by 37 metres with extant brick walls of 15 feet 4.
This lay east of the settlement, alongside the platform on which the granary block stood. At one end of the basin was a small sluice or spillway with a locking device. The excavator has inferred that the basin was a dock to which ships could be brought from the nearby estuary via an artificial channel that would have been kept clear of silt by controlling the flow of water from the spillway.
This view has not been universally accepted; another view is that it provided a source of fresh water for drinking or agriculture.Across India Durga is referred to by several names and worshipped with great fear and reverence. The mighty durga devi is the protector of the universe, by killing evil forces.
Durga or “Durgatinashini” literally translates to durgati – woes and miseries and nashini- eradicator. It is good to worship the Goddess Durga during Navratri.
Apart from Navratri too you can worship Goddess Durga. It is said that Goddess Durga can help to deal with the problem of Rahu and Ketu in our lives apart from blessing us with divine energy in all aspects of life. Durga is the Goddess of Durga Puja as a worship of Durga can be. in various parts of India, as Ramlila, Dusshera, Durga Puja includes an analysis of the worship of durga in india ritual worship,.
· Ban on Durga Puja. Hindu priests worship young girls dressed as Kumari as part of a ritual during the Durga Puja festival celebrations at a pandal, or a temporary platform, in Kolkata, India, October 17, 1. Introduction of Signature Analysis 2.
Meaning of it.
3. How relates to our body. 4. How relates to Astrology & current transit stars. 5. How to change & what effects after change. A free online resource crammed with advice about choosing Indian baby girl names Which Indian baby girl name shall I give to my baby?
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