Etymology[ edit ] The earliest known depiction of a Siberian shaman, by the Dutch Nicolaes Witsen17th century. Witsen called him a "priest of the Devil" and drew clawed feet for the supposed demonic qualities. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility" that is nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology.
But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art. Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not.
The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize. The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all.
The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse. Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetrybecause the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form.
Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio. The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalismalthough there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists.
Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer.
Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope.
Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance.
Oratorythe art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indianfor instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory.Witchcraft is a way of life for individuals, not the masses, and there's no point in you coming toward the Craft.
if you are a wimp,a follower, a coward, or a fool. Shaman's Drum: A Journal of Experiential Shamanism and Spiritual Healing, 1 (), Williams, Ore.: Cross-Cultural Shamanism Network.
This journal publishes original field research, cross-cultural comparative studies, and personal experience articles on all aspects of . Free epilepsy papers, essays, and research papers. Epilepsy: The Misunderstood Disorder - Epilepsy is a condition in which a person has two or more seizures affecting a variety of mental and physical functions.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.. A shaman (/ ˈ ʃ ɑː m ə n / SHAH-men, / ˈ ʃ æ m ə n / or / ˈ ʃ eɪ m ə n /) is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world.
We have reviewed the physical evidence for matter's connection to spacetime and the universe (see: "Nature's Fractal Pathway").We found multiple linkages between spacetime and matter, of which the most familiar are light, time, inertia, and gravitation.
Start studying Chapter 2: Indigenous Religions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search.
• Describe the importance of ritual in the practice of indigenous religion. • Define the function of taboos. • Describe the role of the shaman.