Please consider one of the questions listed below to help guide your personal statement topic: Write a personal statement about your expectations for what law school ought to be e. What is the most difficult thing you have ever had to do? If you could relive any one day of your life, what day would it be?
Genetics[ edit ] One of the strongest evidences for common descent comes from gene sequences. More closely related species have a greater fraction of identical sequence and shared substitutions compared to more distantly related species.
While on board HMS BeagleCharles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. The simplest and most powerful evidence is provided by phylogenetic reconstruction.
Such reconstructions, especially when done using slowly evolving protein sequences, are often quite robust and can be used to reconstruct a great deal of the evolutionary history of modern organisms and even in some instances of the evolutionary history of extinct organisms, such as the recovered gene sequences of mammoths or Neanderthals.
These reconstructed phylogenies recapitulate the relationships established through morphological and biochemical studies. While a minority of these elements might later be found to harbor function, in aggregate they demonstrate that identity must be the product of common descent rather than common function.
Perhaps most tellingly, the Genetic Code the "translation table" between DNA and amino acids is the same for almost every organism, meaning that a piece of DNA in a bacterium codes for the same amino acid as in a human cell. ATP is used as energy currency by all extant life. A deeper understanding of developmental biology shows that common morphology is, in fact, the product of shared genetic elements.
DNA sequencing[ edit ] Comparison of DNA sequences allows organisms to be grouped by sequence similarity, and the resulting phylogenetic trees are typically congruent with traditional taxonomyand are often used to strengthen or correct taxonomic classifications. Sequence comparison is considered a measure robust enough to correct erroneous assumptions in the phylogenetic tree in instances where other evidence is scarce.
For example, neutral human DNA sequences are approximately 1. The analysis by Carl Woese resulted in the three-domain systemarguing for two major splits in the early evolution of life. The first split led to modern Bacteria and the subsequent split led to modern Archaea and Eukaryotes.
Some DNA sequences are shared by very different organisms. It has been predicted by the theory of evolution that the differences in such DNA sequences between two organisms should roughly resemble both the biological difference between them according to their anatomy and the time that had passed since these two organisms have separated in the course of evolution, as seen in fossil evidence.
The rate of accumulating such changes should be low for some sequences, namely those that code for critical RNA or proteinsand high for others that code for less critical RNA or proteins; but for every specific sequence, the rate of change should be roughly constant over time.
These results have been experimentally confirmed. Two examples are DNA sequences coding for rRNAwhich is highly conserved, and DNA sequences coding for fibrinopeptides amino acid chains that are discarded during the formation of fibrinwhich are highly non-conserved.
Vital proteinssuch as the ribosomeDNA polymeraseand RNA polymeraseare found in everything from the most primitive bacteria to the most complex mammals.
The core part of the protein is conserved across all lineages of life, serving similar functions. Higher organisms have evolved additional protein subunitslargely affecting the regulation and protein-protein interaction of the core.
Other overarching similarities between all lineages of extant organisms, such as DNARNAamino acids, and the lipid bilayergive support to the theory of common descent. Phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences from various organisms produce similar trees of relationship between all organisms.
As there is no functional advantage to right- or left-handed molecular chirality, the simplest hypothesis is that the choice was made randomly by early organisms and passed on to all extant life through common descent.
Further evidence for reconstructing ancestral lineages comes from junk DNA such as pseudogenes"dead" genes that steadily accumulate mutations.
A pseudogene can be produced when a coding gene accumulates mutations that prevent it from being transcribed, making it non-functional.
Non-functional pseudogenes may be passed on to later species, thereby labeling the later species as descended from the earlier species. Other mechanisms[ edit ] A large body of molecular evidence supports a variety of mechanisms for large evolutionary changes, including: The endosymbiotic theory explains the origin of mitochondria and plastids including chloroplastswhich are organelles of eukaryotic cells, as the incorporation of an ancient prokaryotic cell into ancient eukaryotic cell.
Rather than evolving eukaryotic organelles slowly, this theory offers a mechanism for a sudden evolutionary leap by incorporating the genetic material and biochemical composition of a separate species.
Evidence supporting this mechanism has been found in the protist Hatena: Many lineages diverged when new metabolic processes appeared, and it is theoretically possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ancestor or by detecting their physical manifestations.
Specific examples from comparative physiology and biochemistry[ edit ] Chromosome 2 in humans[ edit ] Further information: Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere Evidence for the evolution of Homo sapiens from a common ancestor with chimpanzees is found in the number of chromosomes in humans as compared to all other members of Hominidae.
All hominidae have 24 pairs of chromosomes, except humans, who have only 23 pairs. Human chromosome 2 is a result of an end-to-end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes. The correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes.
The closest human relative, the common chimpanzeehas near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two separate chromosomes. The same is true of the more distant gorilla and orangutan. Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere.
These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the middle.cultural diversity final. STUDY.
Examples of our diversity-centered programming include: The African American Read-In – is a national literacy initiative and Black History Month program that I launched it at UMKC in It is a collaboration between university staff, faculty, even classes of inner-city high school students that brings the works of well-known authors to life. Jan 26, · Multicultural Diversity Essays (Examples) Filter results by: How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life? Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development. Diverse Team Building Course Why Cultural Diversity Courses are Important. The modern workplace is built around diverse teams that come together to strategize, develop products, leverage each other’s strengths, solve business and institutional challenges, and keep their organizations competitive.
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