History[ edit ] Stacks entered the computer science literature inwhen Alan M. Turing used the terms "bury" and "unbury" as a means of calling and returning from subroutines. Klaus Samelson and Friedrich L. Bauer of Technical University Munich proposed the idea in and filed a patent in and in March Bauer received the Computer Pioneer Award for the invention of the stack principle.
Philip KoopmanCarnegie Mellon University October, Abstract Because on-line search databases typically contain only abstracts, it is vital to write a complete but concise description of your work to entice potential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper. This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for both conference and journal papers.
Writers should follow a checklist consisting of: Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. Introduction Now that the use of on-line publication databases is prevalent, writing a really good abstract has become even more important than it was a decade ago.
Abstracts have always served the function of "selling" your work. But now, instead of merely convincing the reader to keep reading the rest of the attached paper, an abstract must convince the reader to leave the comfort of an office and go hunt down a copy of the article from a library or worse, obtain one after a long wait through inter-library loan.
In a business context, an "executive summary" is often the only piece of a report read by the people who matter; and it should be similar in content if not tone to a journal paper abstract.
Parts of an Abstract Despite the fact that an abstract is quite brief, it must do almost as much work as the multi-page paper that follows it. In a computer architecture paper, this means that it should in most cases include the following sections.
Each section is typically a single sentence, although there is room for creativity. In particular, the parts may be merged or spread among a set of sentences.
Use the following as a checklist for your next abstract: Why do we care about the problem and the results? This section should include the importance of your work, the difficulty of the area, and the impact it might have if successful.
What problem are you trying to solve? What is the scope of your work a generalized approach, or for a specific situation? Be careful not to use too much jargon. In some cases it is appropriate to put the problem statement before the motivation, but usually this only works if most readers already understand why the problem is important.
How did you go about solving or making progress on the problem? Did you use simulation, analytic models, prototype construction, or analysis of field data for an actual product? What was the extent of your work did you look at one application program or a hundred programs in twenty different programming languages?
What important variables did you control, ignore, or measure? Specifically, most good computer architecture papers conclude that something is so many percent faster, cheaper, smaller, or otherwise better than something else. Put the result there, in numbers. Avoid vague, hand-waving results such as "very", "small", or "significant.
What are the implications of your answer? Is it going to change the world unlikelybe a significant "win", be a nice hack, or simply serve as a road sign indicating that this path is a waste of time all of the previous results are useful.
Are your results general, potentially generalizable, or specific to a particular case? Other Considerations An abstract must be a fully self-contained, capsule description of the paper.
It must make sense all by itself. Some points to consider include: Meet the word count limitation. If your abstract runs too long, either it will be rejected or someone will take a chainsaw to it to get it down to size. Your purposes will be better served by doing the difficult task of cutting yourself, rather than leaving it to someone else who might be more interested in meeting size restrictions than in representing your efforts in the best possible manner.
An abstract word limit of to words is common.
Data Structures in Java: From Abstract Data Types to the Java Collections Framework [Simon Gray] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book focus is on the design of data structures and takes the reader through the design phase of developing the ADTs in abstract terms. This cohort study uses electronic health record data to examine associations between maternal diabetes (preexisting type 1, type 2, and gestational) and autism. This is the first tutorial in the "Livermore Computing Getting Started" workshop. It is intended to provide only a very quick overview of the extensive and broad topic of Parallel Computing, as a lead-in for the tutorials that follow it.
Any major restrictions or limitations on the results should be stated, if only by using "weasel-words" such as "might", "could", "may", and "seem". Think of a half-dozen search phrases and keywords that people looking for your work might use.
Be sure that those exact phrases appear in your abstract, so that they will turn up at the top of a search result listing.
But, if your paper appears in a somewhat un-traditional venue, be sure to include in the problem statement the domain or topic area that it is really applicable to. Some publications request "keywords". These have two purposes.Bought a 5 page english paper.
The writer followed the instructions on what to write for each paragraph. But totally ignored the " don't summarize the story" instruction, and there were many faulty sentences. This cohort study uses electronic health record data to examine associations between maternal diabetes (preexisting type 1, type 2, and gestational) and autism.
Step 2: Write the Methods. This section responds to the question of how the problem was studied. If your paper is proposing a new method, you need to include detailed information so a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment. An abstract data type (ADT) is basically a logical description or a specification of components of the data and the operations that are allowed, that is independent of the implementation.
ADTs are a theoretical concept in computer science, used i. Data Structures in Java: From Abstract Data Types to the Java Collections Framework [Simon Gray] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book focus is on the design of data structures and takes the reader through the design phase of developing the ADTs in abstract terms.
How to Write a Business Report. In this Article: Article Summary Deciding What Type of Report to Write Writing a Business Report Community Q&A Business reports are one of the most effective ways to communicate in today’s business world. Although business reports' objectives are broad in scope, businesses or individuals can use them to help make important decisions.