The main provisions of these Regulations require employers to provide:
Nanna, MSN, RN, BC-NE Abstract Although health literacy is a concept new to many members of the healthcare community, it has quickly caught the attention of researchers, policy makers, and clinicians due to its widespread impact on health and well-being.
Despite the enormous implications of low health literacy, there remains a significant amount of confusion surrounding the concept and its connection with healthcare outcomes. The purpose of this article is to outline the scope of low health literacy as a concept and explore ways that researchers and clinicians can reduce its negative impact on health outcomes.
First, the major definitions of health literacy are presented in a brief overview. Health literacy is believed to be a stronger predictor of health outcomes than social and economic status, education, gender, and age American Medical Association, Inadequate health literacy is more prevalent among vulnerable populations, such as the elderly, minorities, persons with lower education, and persons with chronic disease DeWalt et al.
The ramifications for people with low to moderate healthcare literacy skills include the inability to assume positive self management, higher medical costs due to more medication and treatment errors, more frequent hospitalizations, longer hospital stays, more visits to their healthcare provider, and a lack of necessary skills to obtain needed services National Academy on an Aging Society.
Despite the enormous implications of low health literacy, there remains a significant amount of confusion surrounding the concept and its implications for healthcare professionals. Definitions of Health Literacy The term health literacy was introduced in in a paper calling for minimum health education standards for all grade-school levels in the United States US National Library of Medicine, Despite the increase in attention to this concept, a consensus amongst researchers as to a definition of the term has yet to be reached; many definitions of health literacy have been developed, each providing a slightly different perspective.
The AMA has offered the following definition of health literacy: As the latter definition has received the most support, being adopted by Healthy People and a number of organizations, it provides the framework for this discussion.
These three factors should not be considered to be mutually exclusive to one another, but rather to provide a working framework through which the concept of health literacy can be discussed. Obtaining Information One of the most difficult challenges healthcare providers may need to overcome when speaking with persons having low health literacy is gaining their trust.
It stands to reason that the most obvious approach to addressing low health literacy is related to making information more accessible. Without accessible information, there is no basis by which an individual, organization, or community can process messages to improve health outcomes.
Because information accessibility is closely related to communication channels, i. Both obstacles and strategies for obtaining information through these channels will be presented.
Challenges Related to Obtaining Information Historically, people have gone to their healthcare providers to receive credible health information.
They continue to receive most of their health information from healthcare providers. One of the most difficult challenges healthcare providers may need to overcome when speaking with persons having low health literacy is gaining their trust.
When the provider is different from the patient in terms of age, ethnic background, education, and socio-economic status, it may be difficult for the patient to feel comfortable asking questions or disclosing personal health information.
To make matters worse, many persons low in health literacy often do not see the same provider each time they seek care, making it even more challenging for providers to develop and maintain good relationships. Additionally, time is often in short supply during medical interviews and examinations, as pressures continue to mount for healthcare providers to increase the number of patients they see each day.
When time is limited, and patients do not feel comfortable communicating, it can be very difficult for a healthcare provider to determine what the patient does not understand and to address this knowledge gap adequately.
Unfortunately, these efforts at promoting health information are inconsistent and highly dependent upon level of public funding and geographic location, with the poorer and more rural populations at a greater disadvantage. Individuals who cannot regularly visit healthcare organizations may not have access to these materials, and those who do have access may not understand how to navigate a library or even a health reference text if it is too complex or scientific.
There are also challenges related to obtaining information via the Internet. In contrast, marginalized populations, such as ethnic groups that speak English as a second language, the poor, and the elderly have less access to online health information.
These issues, which are vital to promoting health literacy online, have been highlighted by the U. Department of Health and Human Services in Healthy People in their goals for improving health communication.Allen + Clarke is a public policy consultancy firm based in Wellington, New Zealand, working globally.
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What are the main health and safety regulations? 1. Main employer duties under the Regulations include: making 'assessments of risk' to the health and safety of its workforce, and to act upon risks they identify, so as to reduce them (Regulation 3);. The Public Inspection page on alphabetnyc.com offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's Federal Register issue.
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