Assumptions that presuppose the primacy of economic competitiveness in the post-Cold War era are spurring a reevaluation of the traditional view that the US Government should not use its intelligence assets to give US companies competitive advantages over foreign firms. Analysis of the concept of such government-sponsored industrial spying, however, reveals numerous potential problems. These include legal issues, limited cost effectiveness, multinational corporations and, potentially, an increased risk of international conflict if such actions are pursued aggressively. Nevertheless, other countries are doing it, US companies are victims of it, and the US Government has to decide what to do about it.
A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community"asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agentwho may have diplomatic status i. Cutouts are couriers who do not know Industrial espionage intelligence agent or case officer but transfer messages.
A safe house is a refuge for spies. Spies often seek to obtain secret information from another source. In larger networks the organization can be complex with many methods to avoid detection, including clandestine cell systems. Often the players have never met.
Case officers are stationed in foreign countries to recruit and to supervise intelligence agents, who in turn spy on targets in their countries where they are assigned.
A spy need not be a citizen of the target country—hence does not automatically commit treason when operating within it.
While the more common practice is to recruit a person already trusted with access to sensitive information, sometimes a person with a well-prepared synthetic identity cover backgroundcalled a legend in tradecraftmay attempt to infiltrate a target organization.
These agents can be moles who are recruited before they get access to secretsdefectors who are recruited after they get access to secrets and leave their country or defectors in place who get access but do not leave.
A legend is also employed for an individual who Industrial espionage intelligence not an illegal agent, but is an ordinary citizen who is "relocated", for example, a "protected witness". Nevertheless, such a non-agent very likely will also have a case officer who will act as controller.
As in most, if not all synthetic identity schemes, for whatever purpose illegal or legalthe assistance of a controller is required. Spies may be given other roles that also require infiltration, such as sabotage.
Many governments spy on their allies as well as their enemies, although they typically maintain a policy of not commenting on this. Governments also employ private companies to collect information on their behalf such as SCG International RiskInternational Intelligence Limited and others.
Many organizations, both national and non-national, conduct espionage operations.
It should not be assumed that espionage is always directed at the most secret operations of a target country. National and terrorist organizations and other groups are also targets. Communications both are necessary to espionage and clandestine operationsand also a great vulnerability when the adversary has sophisticated SIGINT detection and interception capability.
Agents must also transfer money securely. Agents in espionage[ edit ] In espionage jargon, an "agent" is the person who does the spying; a citizen of one country who is recruited by a second country to spy on or work against his own country or a third country.
In popular usage, this term is often erroneously applied to a member of an intelligence service who recruits and handles agents; in espionage such a person is referred to as an intelligence officer, intelligence operative or case officer. There are several types of agent in use today: Peddlersfabricatorsand others who work for themselves rather than a service are not double agents because they are not agents.
The fact that double agents have an agent relationship with both sides distinguishes them from penetrations, who normally are placed with the target service in a staff or officer capacity.
This can be useful in capturing important information from an agent that is attempting to seek allegiance with another country. The double agent usually has knowledge of both intelligence services and can identify operational techniques of both, thus making third-party recruitment difficult or impossible.
The knowledge of operational techniques can also affect the relationship between the operations officer or case officer and the agent if the case is transferred by an operational targeting officer to a new operations officer, leaving the new officer vulnerable to attack. This type of transfer may occur when an officer has completed his term of service or when his cover is blown.
If used in corporate intelligence gathering, this may include gathering information of a corporate business venture or stock portfolio. In economic intelligence, "Economic Analysts may use their specialized skills to analyze and interpret economic trends and developments, assess and track foreign financial activities, and develop new econometric and modeling methodologies.
The use of the media to print a story to mislead a foreign service into action, exposing their operations while under surveillance. This type of agent is not the same as a deep cover operative, who continually contacts a case officer to file intelligence reports.Industrial espionage, acquisition of trade secrets from business competitors.
A by-product of the technological revolution, industrial espionage is a reaction to the efforts of many businessmen to keep secret their designs, formulas, manufacturing processes, research, and future plans in order to. Corporate espionage — sometimes also called industrial espionage, economic espionage or corporate spying — is the practice of using espionage techniques for commercial or financial purposes.
Industrial espionage describes covert activities, such as the theft of trade secrets by the removal, copying or recording of confidential or valuable information in a company for use by a competitor. Counter intelligence in industrial espionage by the United States on a national level is virtually impossible because of public scrutiny in our open society.
On the positive side, the upheaval of a rapid transition from the global political high-tension and high stability of the. Before attempting to understand the occurrence of industrial espionage in America, it may be vital to understand the techniques used by the modern espionage – Netspionage – agents and techno-spies so that adequate and effective measures could be adopted to prevent the threat of espionage.
As a result, traditional espionage tradecraft has become an important factor in the field of industrial espionage. Cyber intrusion is a frequently used tactic for industrial espionage, but it is not the only one ; the threat from other espionage techniques, including human intelligence techniques, cannot be ignored.